IndWMPs can include voluntary producer responsibility schemes for particular waste streams whereby producers, importers or retailers take responsibility for the waste generated by their products beyond point-of-sale and choose the most effective way of meeting their responsibilities.

The Waste Act also provides for the declaration of mandatory Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) schemes whereby the Minister prescribes how a waste stream should be managed and the required funding mechanism to do so. Mandatory EPR schemes can be declared when voluntary schemes provided for by IndWMPs have failed to effectively manage a waste stream.